Waterflooding: Performance Predictions and Surveillance
"If you only take one waterflood course during your career, this is it!"
This five-day course covers the reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding. The seminar combines geology, rock and fluid properties, and immiscible displacement theory to develop waterflooding prediction techniques and to aid in the evaluation of actual waterflood performance behavior. Detailed procedures for analyzing oil and water producing rates, water injection rates, and recovery efficiency are presented. Selection of waterflood patterns (regular, irregular, peripheral), prediction of sweep efficiency (areal, vertical, and displacement), and an analysis of other variables which control recovery efficiency are discussed in detail. Also discussed are waterflood surveillance techniques such as production plots, WOR analysis, floodable pore volume versus primary depletion pore volume, injection profile testing, pressure transient testing, step-rate testing, Hall plots, pattern balancing, bubble maps, volumetric sweep (reservoir conformance) evaluation, and injection efficiency determination. These surveillance techniques provide the engineer with information required for the efficient management of both new and mature waterfloods. Several waterflood case studies are reviewed.
The course is ideally suited for engineers and geologists with several years of waterflood experience; however, the course is presented in a manner so that both beginning and experienced personnel will find the material very useful. The course content and example problems have been selected to teach and illustrate important concepts. A typical class day will include about six hours of lecture and example problem illustrations, and about two hours of directed problem work and discussion.
I. FACTORS CONTROLLING WATERFLOOD RECOVERY
Initial oil in place, displacement sweep efficiency, areal sweep efficiency, vertical sweep efficiency
II. REVIEW OF ROCK PROPERTIES AND FLUID FLOW
Wettability, imbibition and drainage concepts, capillary pressure, air permeability, absolute permeability, effective permeability, relative permeability
III. DETERMINATION OF OIL IN PLACE
Current oil saturation versus initial oil saturation, gas saturation, porosity-permeability cutoffs, net pay cutoff determination, calibration of log porosity with core porosity, rock continuity and floodable pay, water floodable pore volume versus primary production pore volume versus total pore volume
IV. MECHANISM OF IMMISCIBLE FLUID DISPLACEMENT (Displacement Sweep)
Fractional flow equations, frontal advance theory, Buckley-Leverett theory, water saturation distribution, performance before breakthrough, performance after breakthrough, effects of gas saturation, fillup time, PVT evaluation and reservoir pressure distribution between wells, data requirements, starting time, primary production, and tertiary recovery.
V. FLOOD PATTERNS AND AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY
Mobility ratio, basic flood patterns (line drive, five-spot, nine-spot, etc.), irregular patterns, peripheral patterns, iso-potential lines, streamlines, areal sweep efficiency, pattern selections
VI. RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY
Vertical permeability variation, areal permeability variation, detection of stratification, selection of layers, Dykstra-Parsons coefficient, effect of cross flow, vertical sweep efficiency
VII. INJECTION RATES AND PRESSURES
Fluid injectivity, effect of mobility ratio, gas saturation, patterns and formation damage, pattern injectivity before and after fillup
VIII. WATERFLOOD PERFORMANCE PREDICTION
Analogy method, industry rules, empirical models, Dykstra-Parsons (DP) method, Stiles method, Craig-Geffen-Morse (CGM) method, numerical models
IX. WATERFLOOD SURVEILLANCE
Production testing, production plots, cut-cum graphs, transient pressure testing, step-rate tests, Hall plots, injection profile management, pattern balancing, volumetric sweep determination, conformance improvement, injection efficiency analysis, etc.
A detailed course manual with example problems written by Dr. William Cobb and Dr. James T. Smith will be provided.
METHOD OF INSTRUCTION
This course is taught using visual aids which are keyed to the course manual. Both the manual and visual aids were designed specifically to teach this course and all material is covered in the exact order it is presented in the manual. This effective teaching method eliminates note-taking, permits the maximum coverage of material, allows participants to concentrate on class lectures and discussions, and provides participants with a permanent reference.
Dr. Cobb is a petroleum engineering consultant who specializes in waterflooding, pressure transient analysis, and property management. Cobb has 35 years experience in the petroleum industry including research, staff, and district positions for ARCO Oil and Gas. He has hands-on experience in the design, implementation, surveillance, and management of waterfloods in various waterflooding areas of North America as well as Australia, Africa, the Middle East, the North Sea, South America, and Southeast Asia. He headed oil and gas operations for Cornell Oil Company, an independent oil and gas company. For more than 23 years, Cobb has directed a petroleum consulting firm in Dallas.
Cobb served on the petroleum engineering staff at Mississippi State. He has conducted numerous one-week short courses on the subjects of waterflooding, pressure transient analysis, and petroleum economics.
Cobb has served on numerous committees for the SPE, including the Reservoir Engineering Program Committee, Publications Review Committee, Distinguished Author Series Committee, and Chairman of the Formation Evaluation Committee. Dr. Cobb is the SPE 2008 President and a member of the SPE Board of Directors. He previously served as a Distinguished Lecturer for the SPE in 1993-94 and was recognized as a Distinguished SPE member in 1995. In 1999, he was presented with the SPE Reservoir Engineer Award. He is currently a adjunct professor of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University.
Cobb received B.S. and M.S. degrees from Mississippi State University and a Ph.D. from Stanford University, all in Petroleum Engineering.
|G099133Q||Apr 7 - 11||8:00 am - 5:00 pm|
|Midland College PPDC Building|
|Registered: 19||40.0 Hours|