Waterflooding: Performance Predictions and Surveillance / Instructor: Dr. Michael Wiggins
(PTRT2005)

"If you only take one waterflood course during your career, this is it!"

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This five-day course covers the reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding. The seminar combines geology, rock and fluid properties, and immiscible displacement theory to develop waterflooding prediction techniques and to aid in the evaluation of actual waterflood performance behavior. Detailed procedures for analyzing oil and water producing rates, water injection rates, and recovery efficiency are presented. Selection of waterflood patterns (regular, irregular, peripheral), prediction of sweep efficiency (areal, vertical, and displacement), and an analysis of other variables which control recovery efficiency are discussed in detail. Also discussed are waterflood surveillance techniques such as production plots, WOR analysis, floodable pore volume versus primary depletion pore volume, injection profile testing, pressure transient testing, step-rate testing, Hall plots, pattern balancing, bubble maps, volumetric sweep (reservoir conformance) evaluation, and injection efficiency determination. These surveillance techniques provide the engineer with information required for the efficient management of both new and mature waterfloods. Several waterflood case studies are reviewed.

The course is ideally suited for engineers and geologists with several years of waterflood experience; however, the course is presented in a manner so that both beginning and experienced personnel will find the material very useful. The course content and example problems have been selected to teach and illustrate important concepts. A typical class day will include about six hours of lecture and example problem illustrations, and about two hours of directed problem work and discussion.

COURSE OUTLINE

I. FACTORS CONTROLLING WATERFLOOD RECOVERY
Initial oil in place, displacement sweep efficiency, areal sweep efficiency, vertical sweep efficiency

II. REVIEW OF ROCK PROPERTIES AND FLUID FLOW
Wettability, imbibition and drainage concepts, capillary pressure, air permeability, absolute permeability, effective permeability, relative permeability

III. DETERMINATION OF OIL IN PLACE
Current oil saturation versus initial oil saturation, gas saturation, porosity-permeability cutoffs, net pay cutoff determination, calibration of log porosity with core porosity, rock continuity and floodable pay, water floodable pore volume versus primary production pore volume versus total pore volume

IV. MECHANISM OF IMMISCIBLE FLUID DISPLACEMENT (Displacement Sweep)
Fractional flow equations, frontal advance theory, Buckley-Leverett theory, water saturation distribution, performance before breakthrough, performance after breakthrough, effects of gas saturation, fillup time, PVT evaluation and reservoir pressure distribution between wells, data requirements, starting time, primary production, and tertiary recovery.

V. FLOOD PATTERNS AND AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY
Mobility ratio, basic flood patterns (line drive, five-spot, nine-spot, etc.), irregular patterns, peripheral patterns, iso-potential lines, streamlines, areal sweep efficiency, pattern selections

VI. RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY
Vertical permeability variation, areal permeability variation, detection of stratification, selection of layers, Dykstra-Parsons coefficient, effect of cross flow, vertical sweep efficiency

VII. INJECTION RATES AND PRESSURES
Fluid injectivity, effect of mobility ratio, gas saturation, patterns and formation damage, pattern injectivity before and after fillup

VIII. WATERFLOOD PERFORMANCE PREDICTION
Analogy method, industry rules, empirical models, Dykstra-Parsons (DP) method, Stiles method, Craig-Geffen-Morse (CGM) method, numerical models

IX. WATERFLOOD SURVEILLANCE
Production testing, production plots, cut-cum graphs, transient pressure testing, step-rate tests, Hall plots, injection profile management, pattern balancing, volumetric sweep determination, conformance improvement, injection efficiency analysis, etc.

TEXTBOOK

A detailed course manual with example problems written by Dr. William Cobb and Dr. James T. Smith will be provided.

METHOD OF INSTRUCTION

This course is taught using visual aids which are keyed to the course manual. Both the manual and visual aids were designed specifically to teach this course and all material is covered in the exact order it is presented in the manual. This effective teaching method eliminates note-taking, permits the maximum coverage of material, allows participants to concentrate on class lectures and discussions, and provides participants with a permanent reference.

Dr. Michael L. Wigginscurrently serves as Director of Technology and Training and Senior Vice President of William M. Cobb & Associates, Inc. (Cobb & Associates). Prior to his current role, Mike was president of an independent oil and gas producer and served as a Senior Vice President (2006-2010) and President (2011-2013) of William M. Cobb & Associates, Inc. He has over 35 years of professional experience in academia and the upstream oil and gas industry including drilling, production, and reservoir engineering. His industry experience includes employment with major and independent E&P companies and he has been offering petroleum engineering consulting services to the industry for over 20 years. His technical interests include reservoir management and engineering, production operations, well performance, and production optimization.

Before joining Cobb & Associates in 2006, Mike was a professor of petroleum and geological engineering at the University of Oklahoma, serving on the faculty for 15 years. In this role, he taught courses and conducted research related to reservoir engineering, production operations, and petroleum project evaluation. He has co-authored numerous papers in his areas of expertise and received research funding from various governmental agencies, international oil companies, and national oil companies. In addition, he has conducted numerous short courses in the areas of reservoir management, reservoir engineering, waterflood design and evaluation, well completions, production operations, and petroleum project evaluation.

Mike is a Distinguished Member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and has served on the SPE Board of Directors. He has been the Executive Editor for SPE Production and Facilities and has served as a technical editor for SPE since 1991. He has served on numerous program committees for SPE technical meetings and served as the General Chairman for the 2016 SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference and General Chairman for the 2003 SPE Production and Operations Symposium.

Mike is a registered professional engineer in the states of Texas and Oklahoma. His activities at Cobb & Associates include reservoir studies, oil and gas reserve evaluations and audits, improved recovery design, educational courses, and litigation support including expert witness services.

EDUCATION

Ph.D. Petroleum Engineering
Texas A&M University, May 1991

M.Eng. Petroleum Engineering
Texas A&M University, August 1988

B.S. Petroleum Engineering
Texas A&M University, May 1979

G020173Q Apr 23 - 27 8:00 am - 4:00 pm
Mon,Tue,Wed,Thu,Fri  $3,975.00
($4,000.00 out-of-state)
PPDC Building, 105 W. Illinois, Midland, TX
Registered: 1 Monday - Thursday 8:00 am to 4:00 pm Friday 8:00 am to noon 32.0 Hours


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and associate and baccalaureate degrees. Contact the Commission on Colleges at 1866 Southern Lane, Decatur, Georgia 30033-4097
or call 404-679-4501 for questions about the status of Midland College.

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